* equal contribution, # corresponding author

An up-to-date list is available on Google Scholar


  1. A Survey on Deep Learning Technique for Video Segmentation
    Wenguan Wang, Tianfei Zhou, Fatih Porikli, David Crandall, and Luc Van Gool.

    arXiv, 2021.

    Video segmentation, i.e., partitioning video frames into multiple segments or objects, plays a critical role in a broad range of practical applications, e.g., visual effect assistance in movie, scene understanding in autonomous driving, and virtual background creation in video conferencing, to name a few. Recently, due to the renaissance of connectionism in computer vision, there has been an influx of numerous deep learning based approaches that have been dedicated to video segmentation and delivered compelling performance. In this survey, we comprehensively review two basic lines of research in this area, i.e., generic object segmentation (of unknown categories) in videos and video semantic segmentation, by introducing their respective task settings, background concepts, perceived need, development history, and main challenges. We also provide a detailed overview of representative literature on both methods and datasets. Additionally, we present quantitative performance comparisons of the reviewed methods on benchmark datasets. At last, we point out a set of unsolved open issues in this field, and suggest possible opportunities for further research.


    Exploring Cross-Image Pixel Contrast for Semantic Segmentation
    Wenguan Wang*, Tianfei Zhou*, Fisher Yu, Jifeng Dai, Ender Konukoglu, and Luc Van Gool.

    International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2021.

    Current semantic segmentation methods focus only on mining "local" context, i.e., dependencies between pixels within individual images, by context-aggregation modules (e.g., dilated convolution, neural attention) or structure-aware optimization criteria (e.g., IoU-like loss). However, they ignore "global" context of the training data, i.e., rich semantic relations between pixels across different images. Inspired by the recent advance in unsupervised contrastive representation learning, we propose a pixel-wise contrastive framework for semantic segmentation in the fully supervised setting. The core idea is to enforce pixel embeddings belonging to a same semantic class to be more similar than embeddings from different classes. It raises a pixel-wise metric learning paradigm for semantic segmentation, by explicitly exploring the structures of labeled pixels, which were rarely explored before. Our method can be effortlessly incorporated into existing segmentation frameworks without extra overhead during testing. We experimentally show that, with famous segmentation models (i.e., DeepLabV3, HRNet, OCR) and backbones (i.e., ResNet, HR-Net), our method brings consistent performance improvements across diverse datasets (i.e., Cityscapes, PASCAL-Context, COCO-Stuff, CamVid). We expect this work will encourage our community to rethink the current de facto training paradigm in fully supervised semantic segmentation.
  2. Quality-Aware Memory Network for Interactive Volumetric Image Segmentation
    Tianfei Zhou*, Liulei Li*, Gustav Bredell, Jianwu Li, and Ender Konukoglu

    International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), 2021.

    Despite recent progress of automatic medical image segmentation techniques, fully automatic results usually fail to meet the clinical use and typically require further refinement. In this work, we propose a quality-aware memory network for interactive segmentation of 3D medical images. Provided by user guidance on an arbitrary slice, an interaction network is firstly employed to obtain an initial 2D segmentation. The quality-aware memory network subsequently propagates the initial segmentation estimation bidirectionally over the entire volume. Subsequent refinement based on additional user guidance on other slices can be incorporated in the same manner. To further facilitate interactive segmentation, a quality assessment module is introduced to suggest the next slice to segment based on the current segmentation quality of each slice. The proposed network has two appealing characteristics: 1) The memory-augmented network offers the ability to quickly encode past segmentation information, which will be retrieved for the segmentation of other slices; 2) The quality assessment module enables the model to directly estimate the qualities of segmentation predictions, which allows an active learning paradigm where users preferentially label the lowest-quality slice for multi-round refinement. The proposed network leads to a robust interactive segmentation engine, which can generalize well to various types of user annotations (e.g., scribbles, boxes). Experimental results on various medical datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach in comparison with existing techniques.
    Face Forensics in the Wild
    Tianfei Zhou, Wenguan Wang, Zhiyuan Liang, and Jianbing Shen

    Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2021

    On existing public benchmarks, face forgery detection techniques have achieved great success. However, when used in multi-person videos, which often contain many people active in the scene with only a small subset having been manipulated, their performance remains far from being satisfactory. To take face forgery detection to a new level, we construct a novel large-scale dataset, called FFIW-10K, which comprises 10,000 high-quality forgery videos, with an average of three human faces in each frame. The manipulation procedure is fully automatic, controlled by a domain-adversarial quality assessment network, making our dataset highly scalable with low human cost. In addition, we propose a novel algorithm to tackle the task of multi-person face forgery detection. Supervised by only video-level label, the algorithm explores multiple instance learning and learns to automatically attend to tampered faces. Our algorithm outperforms representative approaches for both forgery classification and localization on FFIW-10K, and also shows high generalization ability on existing benchmarks. We hope that our dataset and study will help the community to explore this new field in more depth.
    Differentiable Multi-Granularity Human Representation Learning for Instance-Aware Human Semantic Parsing
    Tianfei Zhou, Wenguan Wang, Si Liu, Yi Yang, and Luc Van Gool.

    Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2021

    To address the challenging task of instance-aware human part parsing, a new bottom-up regime is proposed to learn category-level human semantic segmentation as well as multi-person pose estimation in a joint and end-to-end manner. It is a compact, efficient and powerful framework that exploits structural information over different human granularities and eases the difficulty of person partitioning. Specifically, a dense-to-sparse projection field, which allows explicitly associating dense human semantics with sparse keypoints, is learnt and progressively improved over the network feature pyramid for robustness. Then, the difficult pixel grouping problem is cast as an easier, multi-person joint assembling task. By formulating joint association as maximum-weight bipartite matching, a differentiable solution is developed to exploit projected gradient descent and Dykstra's cyclic projection algorithm. This makes our method end-to-end trainable and allows back-propagating the grouping error to directly supervise multi-granularity human representation learning. This is distinguished from current bottom-up human parsers or pose estimators which require sophisticated post-processing or heuristic greedy algorithms. Experiments on three instance-aware human parsing datasets show that our model outperforms other bottom-up alternatives with much more efficient inference.
  5. Target-Aware Object Discovery and Association for Unsupervised Video Multi-Object Segmentation
    Tianfei Zhou, Jianwu Li, Xueyi Li, and Ling Shao.

    Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2021

    This paper addresses the task of unsupervised video multi-object segmentation. Current approaches follow a two-stage paradigm: 1) detect object proposals using pre-trained Mask R-CNN, and 2) conduct generic feature matching for temporal association using re-identification techniques. However, the generic features, widely used in both stages, are not reliable for characterizing unseen objects, leading to poor generalization. To address this, we introduce a novel approach for more accurate and efficient spatio-temporal segmentation. In particular, to address \textbf{instance discrimination}, we propose to combine foreground region estimation and instance grouping together in one network, and additionally introduce temporal guidance for segmenting each frame, enabling more accurate object discovery. For \textbf{temporal association}, we complement current video object segmentation architectures with a discriminative appearance model, capable of capturing more fine-grained target-specific information. Given object proposals from the instance discrimination network, three essential strategies are adopted to achieve accurate segmentation: 1) target-specific tracking using a memory-augmented appearance model; 2) target-agnostic verification to trace possible tracklets for the proposal; 3) adaptive memory updating using the verified segments. We evaluate the proposed approach on DAVIS17 and YouTube-VIS, and the results demonstrate that it outperforms state-of-the-art methods both in segmentation accuracy and inference speed.
  6. Towards A Weakly Supervised Framework for 3D Point Cloud Object Detection and Annotation
    Qinghao Meng, Wenguan Wang, Tianfei Zhou, Jianbing Shen, Yunde Jia, and Luc Van Gool.

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 2021

    It is quite laborious and costly to manually label LiDAR point cloud data for training high-quality 3D object detectors. This work proposes a weakly supervised framework which allows learning 3D detection from a few weakly annotated examples. This is achieved by a two-stage architecture design. Stage-1 learns to generate cylindrical object proposals under inaccurate and inexact supervision, obtained by our proposed BEV center-click annotation strategy, where only the horizontal object centers are click-annotated in bird's view scenes. Stage-2 learns to predict cuboids and confidence scores in a coarse-to-fine, cascade manner, under incomplete supervision, i.e., only a small portion of object cuboids are precisely annotated. With KITTI dataset, using only 500 weakly annotated scenes and 534 precisely labeled vehicle instances, our method achieves 86-97% the performance of current top-leading, fully supervised detectors (which require 3712 exhaustively annotated scenes with 15654 instances). More importantly, with our elaborately designed network architecture, our trained model can be applied as a 3D object annotator, supporting both automatic and active (human-in-the-loop) working modes. The annotations generated by our model can be used to train 3D object detectors, achieving over 95% of their original performance (with manually labeled training data).
  7. Hierarchical Human Semantic Parsing with Comprehensive Part-Relation Modeling
    Wenguan Wang, Tianfei Zhou, Siyuan Qi, Jianbing Shen, and Song-Chun Zhu.

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 2021

    Human parsing is for pixel-wise human semantic understanding. As human bodies are hierarchically structured, how to model human structures is the central theme in this task. We start with analyzing three inference processes over the human hierarchy: direct inference (directly predicting human semantic parts using image information), bottom-up inference (assembling knowledge from constituent parts), and top-down inference (leveraging context from parent nodes). We then formulate the problem as a compositional neural information fusion (CNIF) framework, which assembles the information from the three inference processes in a conditional manner, i.e., considering the confidence of the sources. Based on CNIF, we further present a part-relation aware human parser (PRHP), which precisely describes three kinds of human part relations, i.e., decomposition, composition, and dependency, by three distinct relation networks. Expressive relation information can be captured by imposing the parameters in the relation networks to satisfy specific geometric characteristics of different relations. By assimilating generic message-passing networks with their edge-typed, convolutional counterparts, PRHP performs iterative reasoning over the human hierarchy. With these efforts, PRHP provides a more general and powerful form of CNIF, and lays the foundation for more sophisticated and flexible human relation patterns of reasoning. Experiments on five datasets demonstrate that our two human parsers outperform the state-of-the-arts in all cases.
  8. Cascaded Parsing of Human-Object Interaction Recognition
    Tianfei Zhou, Siyuan Qi, Wenguan Wang, Jianbing Shen, and Song-Chun Zhu.

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 2021

    This paper addresses the task of detecting and recognizing human-object interactions (HOI) in images. Considering the intrinsic complexity and structural nature of the task, we introduce a cascaded parsing network (CP-HOI) for a multi-stage, structured HOI understanding. At each cascade stage, an instance detection module progressively refines HOI proposals and feeds them into a structured interaction reasoning module. Each of the two modules is also connected to its predecessor in the previous stage. The structured interaction reasoning module is built upon a graph parsing neural network (GPNN). In particular, GPNN infers a parse graph that i) interprets meaningful HOI structures by a learnable adjacency matrix, and ii) predicts action (edge) labels. Within an end-to-end, message-passing framework, GPNN blends learning and inference, iteratively parsing HOI structures and reasoning HOI representations (i.e., instance and relation features). Further beyond relation detection at a bounding-box level, we make our framework flexible to perform fine-grained pixel-wise relation segmentation; this provides a new glimpse into better relation modeling. A preliminary version of our CP-HOI model reached 1st place in the ICCV2019 Person in Context Challenge, on both relation detection and segmentation. Our CP-HOI shows promising results on two popular HOI recognition benchmarks, i.e., V-COCO and HICO-DET.
  9. Group-Wise Semantic Mining for Weakly Supervised Semantic Segmentation
    Xueyi Li, Tianfei Zhou#, Jianwu Li, Yi Zhou, and Zhaoxiang Zhang.

    The AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), 2021

    Acquiring sufficient ground-truth supervision to train deep visual models has been a bottleneck over the years due to the data-hungry nature of deep learning. This is exacerbated in some structured prediction tasks, such as semantic segmentation, which requires pixel-level annotations. This work addresses weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS), with the goal of bridging the gap between image-level annotations and pixel-level segmentation. We formulate WSSS as a novel group-wise learning task that explicitly models semantic dependencies in a group of images to estimate more reliable pseudo ground-truths, which can be used for training more accurate segmentation models. In particular, we devise a graph neural network (GNN) for group-wise semantic mining, wherein input images are represented as graph nodes, and the underlying relations between a pair of images are characterized by an efficient co-attention mechanism. Moreover, in order to prevent the model from paying excessive attention to common semantics only, we further propose a graph dropout layer, encouraging the model to learn more accurate and complete object responses. The whole network is end-to-end trainable by iterative message passing, which propagates interaction cues over the images to progressively improve the performance. We conduct experiments on the popular PASCAL VOC 2012 and COCO benchmarks, and our model yields state-of-the-art performance.
  10. Many-to-One Distribution Learning and K-Nearest Neighbor Smoothing for Thoracic Disease Identification
    Yi Zhou, Lei Huang, Tianfei Zhou, and Ling Shao.

    The AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), 2021

    Chest X-rays are an important and accessible clinical imaging tool for the detection of many thoracic diseases. Over the past decade, deep learning, with a focus on the convolutional neural network (CNN), has become the most powerful computer-aided diagnosis technology for improving disease identification performance. However, training an effective and robust deep CNN usually requires a large amount of data with high annotation quality. For chest X-ray imaging, annotating large-scale data requires professional domain knowledge and is time-consuming. Thus, existing public chest X-ray datasets usually adopt language pattern based methods to automatically mine labels from reports. However, this results in label uncertainty and inconsistency. In this paper, we propose many-to-one distribution learning (MODL) and K-nearest neighbor smoothing (KNNS) methods from two perspectives to improve a single model's disease identification performance, rather than focusing on an ensemble of models. MODL integrates multiple models to obtain a soft label distribution for optimizing the single target model, which can reduce the effects of original label uncertainty. Moreover, KNNS aims to enhance the robustness of the target model to provide consistent predictions on images with similar medical findings. Extensive experiments on the public NIH Chest X-ray and CheXpert datasets show that our model achieves consistent improvements over the state-of-the-art methods.


  1. MATNet: Motion-Attentive Transition Network for Zero-Shot Video Object Segmentation
    Tianfei Zhou, Jianwu Li, Shunzhou Wang, Ran Tao, and Jianbing Shen.

    IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (TIP), 2020

    In this paper, we present a novel end-to-end learning neural network, i.e., MATNet, for zero-shot video object segmentation (ZVOS). Motivated by the human visual attention behavior, MATNet leverages motion cues as a bottom-up signal to guide the perception of object appearance. To achieve this, an asymmetric attention block, named Motion-Attentive Transition (MAT), is proposed within a two-stream encoder network to firstly identify moving regions and then attend appearance learning to capture the full extent of objects. Putting MATs in different convolutional layers, our encoder becomes deeply interleaved, allowing for close hierarchical interactions between object apperance and motion. Such a biologically-inspired design is proven to be superb to conventional two-stream structures, which treat motion and appearance independently in separate streams and often suffer severe overfitting to object appearance. Moreover, we introduce a bridge network to modulate multi-scale spatiotemporal features into more compact, discriminative and scale-sensitive representations, which are subsequently fed into a boundary-aware decoder network to produce accurate segmentation with crisp boundaries. We perform extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments on four challenging public benchmarks, i.e., DAVIS16, DAVIS17, FBMS and YouTube-Objects. Results show that our method achieves compelling performance against current state-of-the-art ZVOS methods. To further demonstrate the generalization ability of our spatiotemporal learning framework, we extend MATNet to another relevant task: dynamic visual attention prediction (DVAP). The experiments on two popular datasets (i.e., Hollywood-2 and UCF-Sports) further verify the superiority of our model. Our implementations have been made publicly available at
  2. Weakly Supervised 3D Object Detection from Lidar Point Cloud
    Qinghao Meng, Wenguan Wang, Tianfei Zhou, Jianbing Shen, Luc Van Gool, and Dengxin Dai.

    European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2020

    It is laborious to manually label point cloud data for training high-quality 3D object detectors. This work proposes a weakly supervised approach for 3D object detection, only requiring a small set of weakly annotated scenes, associated with a few precisely labeled object instances. This is achieved by a two-stage architecture design. Stage-1 learns to generate cylindrical object proposals under weak supervision, i.e., only the horizontal centers of objects are click-annotated on bird's view scenes. Stage-2 learns to refine the cylindrical proposals to get cuboids and confidence scores, using a few well-labeled object instances. Using only 500 weakly annotated scenes and 534 precisely labeled vehicle instances, our method achieves 85-95% the performance of current top-leading, fully supervised detectors (which require 3, 712 exhaustively and precisely annotated scenes with 15, 654 instances). More importantly, with our elaborately designed network architecture, our trained model can be applied as a 3D object annotator, allowing both automatic and active working modes. The annotations generated by our model can be used to train 3D object detectors with over 94% of their original performance (under manually labeled data). Our experiments also show our model's potential in boosting performance given more training data. Above designs make our approach highly practical and introduce new opportunities for learning 3D object detection with reduced annotation burden.
  3. Video Object Segmentation with Episodic Graph Memory Networks
    Xiankai Lu, Wenguan Wang, Martin Danelljan, Tianfei Zhou, Jianbing Shen, and Luc Van Gool.

    European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2020

    How to make a segmentation model efficiently adapt to a specific video and to online target appearance variations are fundamentally crucial issues in the field of video object segmentation. In this work, a graph memory network is developed to address the novel idea of "learning to update the segmentation model". Specifically, we exploit an episodic memory network, organized as a fully connected graph, to store frames as nodes and capture cross-frame correlations by edges. Further, learnable controllers are embedded to ease memory reading and writing, as well as maintain a fixed memory scale. The structured, external memory design enables our model to comprehensively mine and quickly store new knowledge, even with limited visual information, and the differentiable memory controllers slowly learn an abstract method for storing useful representations in the memory and how to later use these representations for prediction, via gradient descent. In addition, the proposed graph memory network yields a neat yet principled framework, which can generalize well both one-shot and zero-shot video object segmentation tasks. Extensive experiments on four challenging benchmark datasets verify that our graph memory network is able to facilitate the adaptation of the segmentation network for case-by-case video object segmentation.
  4. Cascaded Human-Object Interaction Recognition
    Tianfei Zhou, Wenguan Wang, Siyuan Qi, Haibin Ling, and Jianbin Shen.

    Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2020

    Rapid progress has been witnessed for human-object interaction (HOI) recognition, but most existing models are confined to single-stage reasoning pipelines. Considering the intrinsic complexity of the task, we introduce a cascade architecture for a multi-stage, coarse-to-fine HOI understanding. At each stage, an instance localization network progressively refines HOI proposals and feeds them into an interaction recognition network. Each of the two networks is also connected to its predecessor at the previous stage, enabling cross-stage information propagation. The interaction recognition network has two crucial parts: a relation ranking module for high-quality HOI proposal selection and a triple-stream classifier for relation prediction. With our carefully-designed human-centric relation features, these two modules work collaboratively towards effective interaction understanding. Further beyond relation detection on a bounding-box level, we make our framework flexible to perform fine-grained pixel-wise relation segmentation; this provides a new glimpse into better relation modeling. Our approach reached the 1st place in the ICCV2019 Person in Context Challenge, on both relation detection and segmentation tasks. It also shows promising results on V-COCO.
  5. Motion-Attentive Transition for Zero-Shot Video Object Segmentation
    Tianfei Zhou, Shunzhou Wang, Yi Zhou, Yazhou Yao, Jianwu Li, and Shao Ling.

    The AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), 2020

    In this paper, we present a novel Motion-Attentive Transition Network (MATNet) for zero-shot video object segmentation, which provides a new way of leveraging motion information to reinforce spatio-temporal object representation. An asymmetric attention block, called Motion-Attentive Transition (MAT), is designed within a two-stream encoder, which transforms appearance features into motion-attentive representations at each convolutional stage. In this way, the encoder becomes deeply interleaved, allowing for closely hierarchical interactions between object motion and appearance. This is superior to the typical two-stream architecture, which treats motion and appearance separately in each stream and often suffers from overfitting to appearance information. Additionally, a bridge network is proposed to obtain a compact, discriminative and scale-sensitive representation for multi-level encoder features, which is further fed into a decoder to achieve segmentation results. Extensive experiments on three challenging public benchmarks (i.e. DAVIS-16, FBMS and Youtube-Objects) show that our model achieves compelling performance against the state-of-the-arts.

before 2020

  1. Locality-Constrained Collaborative Model for Robust Visual Tracking
    Tianfei Zhou, Yao Lu, and Huijun Di.

    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (T-CSVT), 2017

    This paper presents a novel discriminative, generative, and collaborative appearance model for robust object tracking. In contrast to existing methods, we use different appearance manifolds to represent the target in the discriminative and generative appearance models and propose a novel collaborative scheme to combine these two components. In particular: 1) for the discriminative component, we develop a graph regularized discriminant analysis (GRDA) algorithm that can find a projection to more effectively distinguish the target from the background; 2) for the generative component, we introduce a simple yet effective coding method for object representation. The method involves no optimization, and thus better efficiency can be achieved; and 3) for the collaborative model, we apply GRDA again to find a subspace for discriminating the likelihood features (generated from the discriminative and generative appearance models) and use the nearest neighbor criterion to determine the final likelihood. Besides, all the components are online updated so that our tracker can deal with appearance changes effectively. The experimental results over 23 challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves better performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
  2. Learning to Generate Video Object Segment Proposals
    Jianwu Li, Tianfei Zhou, and Yao Lu.

    International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME), 2017

    This paper proposes a fully automatic pipeline to generate accurate object segment proposals in realistic videos. Our approach first detects generic object proposals for all video frames and then learns to rank them using a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) descriptor built on appearance and motion cues. The ambiguity of the proposal set can be reduced while the quality can be retained as highly as possible Next, high-scoring proposals are greedily tracked over the entire sequence into distinct tracklets. Observing that the proposal tracklet set at this stage is noisy and redundant, we perform a tracklet selection scheme to suppress the highly overlapped tracklets, and detect occlusions based on appearance and location information. Finally, we exploit holistic appearance cues for refinement of video segment proposals to obtain pixel-accurate segmentation. Our method is evaluated on two video segmentation datasets i.e. SegTrack v1 and FBMS-59 and achieves competitive results in comparison with other state-of-the-art methods.
  3. Video Object Segmentation Aggregation
    Tianfei Zhou, Yao Lu, Huijun Di, and Jian Zhang.

    International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME), 2016

    We present an approach for unsupervised object segmentation in unconstrained videos. Driven by the latest progress in this field, we argue that segmentation performance can be largely improved by aggregating the results generated by state-of-the-art algorithms. Initially, objects in individual frames are estimated through a per-frame aggregation procedure using majority voting. While this can predict relatively accurate object location, the initial estimation fails to cover the parts that are wrongly labeled by more than half of the algorithms. To address this, we build a holistic appearance model using non-local appearance cues by linear regression. Then, we integrate the appearance priors and spatio-temporal information into an energy minimization framework to refine the initial estimation. We evaluate our method on challenging benchmark videos and demonstrate that it outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.
  4. Abrupt Motion Tracking via Nearest Neighbor Field Driven Stochastic Sampling
    Tianfei Zhou, Yao Lu, Feng Lv, Huijun Di, Qingjie Zhao, and Jian Zhang.

    Neurocomputing, 2015

    Stochastic sampling based trackers have shown good performance for abrupt motion tracking so that they have gained popularity in recent years. However, conventional methods tend to use a two-stage sampling paradigm, in which the search space needs to be uniformly explored with an inefficient preliminary sampling phase. In this paper, we propose a novel sampling-based method in the Bayesian filtering framework to address the problem. Within the framework, nearest neighbor field estimation is utilized to compute the importance proposal probabilities, which guide the Markov chain search towards promising regions and thus enhance the sampling efficiency; given the motion priors, a smoothing stochastic sampling Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed to approximate the posterior distribution through a smoothing weight-updating scheme. Moreover, to track the abrupt and the smooth motions simultaneously, we develop an abruptmotion detection scheme which can discover the presence of abrupt motions during online tracking. Extensive experiments on challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of our algorithm in handling the abrupt motions.